is the surface quality that can be seen andelt. Textures can be rough or smooth, soft or hard. Textures are often implied. For instance, a drawing of a rock might appear to have a rough and hard surface, but in reality is as smooth as the paper on which it is drawn.
differentiates and defines lines, shapes, forms, and space. Even black and white images have a huge number of different shades of gray.
is the area between and around objects. Increasing or decreasing the amount of space around an object affects the way we view that object.
is a three-dimensional shape with length, width, and depth. Balls, cylinders, boxes and pyramids are forms.
is created when lines are combined to form a square, triangle, or circle. Shapes can be organic (irregular shapes found in nature) or geometric (shapes with strong lines and angles such as circles, triangles, and squares).
is the degree of light and dark in a design. It is the contrast between black and white and all the tones in between. Value can be used with color as well as black and white. Contrast is the extreme changes between values.